| Last Updated:: 08/06/2020

Industrial Pollution

Any form of pollution that can trace its immediate source to industrial practices is known as industrial pollution. Industrial pollution takes on many faces. It contaminates many sources of drinking water, releases unwanted toxins into the air and reduces the quality of soil all over the world.

Comprehensive Environmental Pollution Index (CEPI)

The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has developed a Comprehensive Environmental Pollution Index (CEPI). CPCB has done a nation wide environmental assessment of Industrial Clusters based on CEPI and 43 such industrial clusters having CEPI greater than 70, on a scale of 0 to 100, has been identified as critically polluted.

The data refers to the Comprehensive Environmental Pollution Index (CEPI) scores of the critically polluted industrial clusters/areas. The index captures the various dimensions of environment including air, water and land.

Comprehensive Environmental Pollution Index (CEPI), which is a rational number to characterize the environmental quality at a given location following the algorithm of source, pathway and receptor have been developed.

Parameters for Monitoring

A. Ambient Air Quality:

  1. SO2 , NO2 , PM10 , PM2.5, Lead (for 24 hourly average monitoring values for at-least 2 days)

  2. O3 , CO (for 1 hourly average and 8 hourly average for at least 2 days)

  3. Benzene, Benzo(O) Pyrene, Arsenic & Nickel (for 24 hourly average for at least 2 days)

B. Water Quality: Prominent Sampling Locations

  1. Outfalls of CETPs, ETPs, FETP, treated effluent drainage and Surface Water bodies like rivers, canals, ponds, lakes and other water supply resources flowing through the area or flowing adjoining the CPA.

  2. Ground Water Quality data of prominent ground water resources such as observation wells of Central Ground Water Board, drinking water wells, hand pumps, bore wells and other such water supply resources located in the industrial cluster/ area under consideration or in the peripheral areas.

C. Parameters for Water Quality Monitoring : (for surface water and ground water both)

  1. Simple Parameters - General Appearance, Colour, Smell, Transparency and Ecological parameters like presence of animals like fish, insects etc. only in case of surface water bodies.

  2. Regular Monitoring Parameters pH, DO ( % saturation), COD in mg/l , BOD in mg/l, Electrical Conductivity in µmhos/cm, (NO2+NO3)-Nitrogen in mg/l, Suspended Solids in mg/l, Fecal Coliform (MPN/100 ml), Bio-assay (zebra fish)

  3. Special Parameters Total phosphorous, TKN, Total Ammonia(NH4+NH3)-Nitrogen, Phenols, Surface Active Agents, Organo-chlorine pesticides, PAH, PCB and PCT, Zinc, Nickel, Copper, Chromium (Total), Arsenic (Total), Lead, Cadmium, Mercury

D. Frequency of Monitoring : Thrice in a year (January – February, May – June and September – October)

Note :

  • DO is not applicable in case of ground waters.
  • DO in eutrophicated waters should include measurements for diurnal variations.
  • SS limit is applicable only during non-monsoon period.
  • Fecal Coliform values should meet for 90 % times. Static Bio-assay method may be adopted.

Revised Concept of Comprehensive Environmental Pollution Index (CEPI)

The concept of Comprehensive Environmental Pollution Index (CEPI) was evolved by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) during 2009-10 as a tool for comprehensive environmental assessment of prominent industrial clusters and formulation of remedial Action Plans for the identified critically polluted areas. Later-on proposals were received from the SPCBs, State Governments, and Industrial Associations and concerned Stake-holders for revisiting the criteria of assessment under CEPI concept. After careful examination and consideration of the suggestions of concerned stake-holders, it was decided to prepare the revised concept of CEPI by eliminating the subjective factors but retaining the factors which can be measured precisely.

Issues raised by different stake-holders were addressed appropriately and final document on ‘Revised CEPI Version 2016’ has been evolved retaining the existing algorithm of Source, Pathway and Receptor. The applications & salient features of revised CEPI version 2016 are as follows:

The concept can be applied to locations also other than industrial clusters
Changes in an industry which make it less polluting shall be permitted. These changes include expansion of production capacity / change of product / change of raw materials / change of manufacturing process or a combination of these changes. These shall be allowed subject to the condition that there will no addition of the pollution load or adverse impact on the environment.
The revised CEPI shall be used by the State Governments, SPCBs and others concerned to understand the severity of pollution existing in the area and formulate appropriate action plan. Further, sufficient time shall be given for effective implementation of the action plan before imposition of moratorium. Thus, the revised concept shall be an early warning tool to ensure the successful implementation of Action Plan.
The outcome of the CEPI assessment shall not be used by the Bankers for any sort of financial freezing decisions on industry funding.
The moratorium on Grant of Environmental Clearance shall be imposed on a particular CPA only after a notice period of 1 year from the initial announcement of CEPI assessment, provided no reduction in CEPI value or improvement in the environmental quality of the area has been observed during the 1 year of notice period.
All the polluting sources identified in the area shall be notified and brought in the public domain (through websites) with the details of their pollution control compliance status. The environmental quality data of the industrial area shall also be placed in public domain through website and also to be published by the State Government periodically.
The State Government shall notify the area on a properly scaled map and also issue public advisories that such an area will be exclusively meant for industrialization as per the State land use plan with no public related infrastructure to be promoted.

The purpose of revisiting the CEPI Concept is to promote industrial development consistent with the environmental objectives. The new concept will encourage industrial sectors to adopt cleaner technologies, ultimately resulting in reduction of the pollution.

Categorization of Industrial Sectors under Red, Orange, Green, and White Category

The application of this concept is not only for the purpose of location of industries, but also for the purpose of Consent management and formulation of norms related to surveillance / inspection of industries. In order to harmonize the ‘Criteria of categorization’, Directions were issued by CPCB under Section 18(1)(b) of the Water ( Prevention & Control of Pollution) , Act, 1974 to all SPCBs/PCCs to maintain uniformity in categorization of industries as red, green and orange as per list finalized by CPCB, which identified 85 types of industrial sectors as ‘Red’, 73 industrial sectors as ‘Orange’ and 86 sectors as ‘Green’.

The process of categorization thus far was primarily based on the size of the industries and consumption of resources. The pollution due to discharge of emissions & effluents and its likely impact on health was not considered as primary criteria. Accordingly, the issue was discussed thoroughly during the national level conference of the Environment Ministers of the States, held in New Delhi during April 06-07, 2015 and a ‘Working Group’ comprising of the members from CPCB, APPCB, TNPCB, WBPCB, PPCB, MPPCB and Maharashtra PCB is constituted to revisit the criteria of categorization of industries and recommend measures for making the system transparent and rational.

The Working Group has developed the criteria of categorization of industrial sectors based on the Pollution Index which is a function of the emissions (air pollutants), effluents (water pollutants), hazardous wastes generated and consumption of resources. Based on the series of brain storming sessions among CPCB, SPCBs and MoEFCC , the following criteria on ‘Range of Pollution Index ‘for the purpose of categorization of industrial sectors is finalized.

Industrial Sectors having Pollution Index score of 60 and above – Red category
Industrial Sectors having Pollution Index score of 41 to 59 – Orange category
Industrial Sectors having Pollution Index score of 21 to 40 – Green category
Industrial Sectors having Pollution Index score incl.& upto 20 - White category

The salient features of the ‘Re-categorization’ Exercise are as follows :
The Red category of industrial sectors would be 60.
The Orange category of industrial sectors would be 83.
The Green category of industrial sectors would be 63.
Newly introduced White category contains 36 industrial sectors which are practically non-polluting. There shall be no necessity of obtaining the Consent to Operate’’ for White category of industries. An intimation to concerned SPCB / PCC shall suffice. No Red category of industries shall normally be permitted in the ecologically fragile area / protected area.

The purpose of categorization is to ensure that the industry is established in a manner which is consistent with the environmental objectives. The new criteria will prompt industrial sectors willing to adopt cleaner technologies, ultimately resulting in generation of fewer pollutants. Another feature of the new categorization system lies in facilitating self-assessment by industries as the subjectivity of earlier assessment has been eliminated. This ‘Re-categorization’ is a part of the efforts, policies and objective of present government to create a clean & transparent working environment in the country and promote the Ease of Doing Business.

Environment Ministry releases new categorisation of industries

The Minister of State for Environment, Forest and Climate Change (Independent Charge), Mr Prakash Javadekar releasing the New Categorisation of Industries, in New Delhi on March 05, 2016.

(Image Source: www.biovoicenews.com/govt-releases-new-categorisation-of-industries/)

Read News: Environment Ministry releases new categorisation of industries
(Source: Press Information Bureau,Government of India,Ministry of Environment, Forests & Climate Change)

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