CHAPTER XIV

OTHER IMPORTANT MATTER DEALT BY THE CENTRAL BOARD

14.1 ZONING ATLAS PROGRAMME

The nation-wide environmental planning and mapping programme, known as "Zoning Atlas Programme" is being executed by the Central and State Pollution Control Boards and other agencies under the World Bank funded ‘Environment Management Capacity Building Technical Assistance Project’. The programme covers various spatial environmental planning activities has been conceived as a tool for protection of the environmental resources and for achieving developmental targets in an environmentally sound manner.

The programme is receiving technical support from the German Agency for Technical cooperation (GTZ) under the Indo-German Bilateral Programme on "CPCB/SPCBs Strengthening of Environmental Quality Assessment and Control".

The activities taken up under the Zoning Atlas Programme during 2001-02 are as below:

14.1.1 Environmental Atlas of India

The Environmental Atlas of India is a compilation of all the environmentally related information presented in the form of maps and text including statistical data. The Atlas has been completed and published.

14.1.2 Mapping of Environmentally Sensitive Zones and Industrial Sites - State-wise

This activity aims at presenting the information on environmentally sensitive zones viz. national parks, reserve forests, protected forests etc. and industrial sites, state-wise, in the form of maps. Earlier, the maps on Environmentally Sensitive Zones and Industrial Sites (ESZIS) were completed for Bihar, Jharkhand, Meghalaya, Kerala, Goa, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Assam, Manipur and Jammu & Kashmir. During the current year, preparation of ESZIS maps is in progress for Maharashtra, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and Uttaranchal.

14.1.3 District-wise Zoning Atlas

The study on Zoning Atlas for Siting of Industries (ZASI) has been taken up district-wise, zones and classifies the environment and presents the pollution receiving potential of various sites/zones in the district and identifies the possible alternate sites for industries, through easy-to-read maps (1:250,000 scale). The work was earlier completed for 60 districts.

During the current year, the work is in progress for 50 districts taken up earlier and another 23 districts for which the work has been commenced in the current year. The list of these 23 districts is given below:

      

State

District

 

State

District

Andhra Pradesh

1. Kurnool

2. Anantpur

3. Guntoor

 

Assam

14. Tinsukia

15. Nagaon

16. Cachar

Gujarat

4. Valsad

5. Navsari

6. Surat

7. Narmada

8. Bharuch

9. Vadodara

10. Ahmedabad

11. Rajkot

12. Surendernagar

   

17. Jorhat

Jammu & Kashmir

18. Jammu

19. Srinagar

Madhya Pradesh

20. Indore

U.T. of Pondicherry

21. Pondicherry

Goa

22. Goa

Jharkhand

13. Chatra

Meghalaya

23. South Garo Hills

                                                                                                  

The ZASI reports have been published for Districts of Medak & Rangareddy (Andhra Pradesh), Sambalpur, Deogarh, Baragarh & Jharsuguda (Orissa) and Sirmour (Himachal Pradesh). The reports of Districts Cuttack, Jajpur, Jagatsinghpur and Kendrapara of Orissa, Ratnagiri of Maharashtra, Ri-Bhoi and East Khasi Hills Districts of Meghalaya, Jamnagar, Junagadh and Porbandar Districts of Gujarat, East Godavari, Srikakulam and Prakasam Districts of Andhra Pradesh and Ernakulam District of Kerala are under printing.

Several State Pollution Control Boards including those in Bihar, Orissa, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Tripura and Madhya Pradesh have issued internal orders for using the Atlases for site clearances. The Central Pollution Control Board is regularly pursuing the State Pollution Control Boards for ensuring usage of the Zoning Atlas recommendations.

14.1.4 Industrial Estate Planning

In continuation of the Zoning Atlas studies, the Industrial Estate Planning studies have been taken up at micro-level (1:50,000 and lower) to identify sites for industrial estates based on environmental sensitivity assessments.

The industrial estate planning studies for the following five sites have been finalized and sent to the concerned State Pollution Control Boards for ensuring usage of the results:

1. Rajanagaram- Kathipudi, East Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh
2. Agasode, Sagar District, Madhya Pradesh
3. Byrnihat, Ri-Bhoi District, Meghalaya
4. Kohara-Machhiwara, Ludhiana District, Punjab
5. Khurja, Bulandshahar District, Uttar Pradesh

The industrial estate planning studies for the following three sites have been completed and are under review for finalization:

1. Adityapur Industrial area, East Singhbhum District, Bihar
2. Baddi-Nalagarh, Solan District, Himachal Pradesh
3. Paradeep Industrial area, Undivided Cuttack District, Orissa

The industrial estate planning studies are in progress for the following sites:

1. Pipavav, Amreli District, Gujarat

2. Tandya Industrial area, Mysore District, Karnataka

3. Palakkad, Kanjikode District, Kerala

4. Lamlai, Imphal District, Manipur

5. Bhiwadi, Alwar District, Rajasthan

6. Bodhjungnagar site, North Tripura District, Tripura

7. Barjora, Bankura District, West Bengal

14.1.5 Environmental Management Plans (EMP) for Urban Areas, Mining Areas, Environmentally Fragile Areas, Tourism Areas, etc.

These studies are targeted for improving environmental quality through appropriate land use planning and management. The progress of work during the current year is presented below:

Environmental Management Plans (EMP) for Urban Areas

The following studies were taken up:

The EMP for Agra has been completed. The study has resulted in identifying the priority projects to be executed for environmental improvement of Agra. Efforts are on to ensure implementation of these projects. The studies for other cities are in progress.

Environmental Management Plans for Mining Areas

The following studies were taken up:

The methodology has been developed to carry out these studies and the studies are in progress.

Environmental Management Plans for Environmentally Fragile Areas

The preparation of environmental management plan for Panchmarhi Biosphere Reserve, Madhya Pradesh is a pilot effort for protecting the environment and achieving sustainable development. The methodology has been developed for conducting these studies and the studies are in progress.

Environmental Management Plans for Tourism Areas

The following studies were taken up:

14.1.6 Other Studies

Mapping of Polluting Activities from NOC/Consent Documents – a pilot has been taken up for West Bengal for creating an inventory of industries in GIS environment to facilitate decision-making on prevention and control of pollution in industries.

Regional/State Planning - These studies are targeted for demonstrating the utility of environmental planning tool for achieving overall development of the district/region/State in a sustainable manner. Pilot studies had been taken up for Jalpaiguri District of West Bengal and for Tripura State. Both these studies are in advanced stages of completion.

Ecocities - "Ecocity" is a city that decreases environmental burden/stress, improves living conditions and helps in achieving sustainable development through a comprehensive urban improvement system involving planning and management of land and its resources and implementation of environmental improvement measures. The Ecocities include area-wide improvements and providing of infrastructure and services.

The Zoning Atlas team of CPCB provided the concepts and technical support for the pilot Ecocity project for the Kottayam-Kumarakom Region of Kerala. The project was launched in January 2002 by the Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India.

A pre-feasibility study was undertaken with GTZ experts, under the Indo-German Bilateral Programme, on developing "Taj Ecocity" around Taj Mahal with verifiable environmental improvement considering social, economic and environmental aspects.

14.1.7 Human Resource Development

A comprehensive human resource development programme has been developed for providing training to various target groups, in the field of spatial environmental planning. The training programmes will be conducted through a network of institutions, called SEP-NET (Spatial Environmental Planning Network). The institutes included in the SEP-NET are: School of Planning & Architecture, New Delhi, Centre for Environmental Planning & Technology - Ahmedabad, EPTRI - Hyderabad, Environmental Training Institute - Chennai, National Productivity Council - Delhi, Disaster Management Institute – Bhopal, TERI – New Delhi, and Steel Authority India Ltd. - Ranchi. The programme is supported by CDG, Germany with grants of approx. Rs 3.5 crore.

During the current year, all the preparatory works including finalsing the human resources development plan, arranging agreements with the participating training institutions, development of a quality assurance manual and related materials were completed. Also, a website for the programme was developed and the officials of participating training institutions were trained on content management of the web site.

A 4-week overseas training programme on ‘Spatial Environmental Planning’ was conducted in Europe in June/July, 2001 for working level officers from the Pollution Control Boards and the Environmental Administration. Also, a 2-week Visit–Cum-Exposure Programme was conducted on ‘Spatial Environmental Planning’ in Europe during September 2001 for the higher officials from the Pollution Control Boards and the Environmental Administration.

The hands-on-training on GIS (Geographic Information System for preparation and analysis of maps) was provided to the teams from the SPCBs and executing agencies. The teams from Himachal Pradesh, Gujarat, Orissa and Bihar were able to handle the works with the training provided.

14.1.8 Infrastructure Development

The spatial environmental planning requires GIS tools and other supporting infrastructure for mapping and disseminating the results. The infrastructure including GIS hardware and software, audio-visual equipment and cartographic equipment have been installed at CPCB and various other State Pollution Control Boards and other executing agencies participating in the programme.

A Centre for Spatial Environmental Planning was commenced at the Himachal Pradesh State Environment Protection and Pollution Control Board, Shimla with modern facilities to undertake the planning tasks.

14.2 ACTIVITIES UNDER THE ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION (PREVENTION AND CONTROL) AUTHORITY FOR THE NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION

The Environment Pollution (Prevention and Control) Authority (EPCA) for the NCR was constituted by the Central Government vide notification dated January, 1998. The main functions of the EPCA are:

The Central Pollution Control Board provided all the technical and secretarial support to the EPCA for carrying out its functions. The EPCA monitored implementation of action points enlisted in the "White Paper on Pollution with on Action Plan", priority measures for vehicular pollution control and implementation of Sh. P.K. Kaul Committee recommendations as instructed by the Hon’ble Supreme Court vide order dated November 16, 1998. The EPCA also prepared reports on ‘Clean Fuels’ and ‘Standards for CNG Vehicles and Refilling Stations’ as desired by the Hon’ble Supreme Court. During period from April 2001 to March 2002, EPCA held 42 meeting for monitoring implementation of the action points and priority measures (Total number of meetings held till March 2002 is 194). EPCA also visited several sites to check compliance by various agencies. Concerned Departments/Ministries of the Central Government and State Governments, and other agencies were persuaded for implementation.

The issues taken up by the EPCA included clean fuels, standards for CNG vehicles and refilling stations, adulteration of fuels, conversion of public transport fleet to CNG mode, CNG supply infrastructure, safety of CNG vehicles, common effluent treatment plants, biomedical waste management and Sh. P.K. Kaul Committee report. In addition, the EPCA had examined interlocutory applications, and other matters referred by the Hon’ble Supreme Court and appropriate action was taken. The action taken on the issues is presented in following paras:

14.2.1 Clean Fuels

The Hon’ble Supreme Court vide its order dated March 26,2001 directed as below:

"During the course of argument, it was contended before us that low sulphur diesel should be regarded as a clean fuel and buses be permitted to run on that. It was submitted that in some other countries ultra low sulphur diesel which has sulphur content of not more than 0.001 per cent is now available. We direct the Bhure Lal Committee to examine this question and permit the parties to submit their written representations to the Committee in this behalf. The Committee may submit a report to this Court in that behalf as also indicate as to which fuel can be regarded as `clean fuel’, which does not cause pollution or is otherwise injurious to health".

The Hon’ble Supreme Courrt further directed vide order dated April 2001 as follows:

"It shall be open to the interested parties to make their representation directly before Bhure Lal Committee in support of their pleas as to what can be regarded as a clean fuel, which does not cause pollution and is otherwise not injurious to health, to assist the Committee to formulate its report."

Accordingly, the EPCA received representations from the following parties:

EPCA also solicited option of Dr. Dinesh Mohan, Professor, IIT, Delhi and TERI, New Delhi. The issues came up through representations as well as from the experts, were examined by EPCA. Such issues include clean fuel, availability of CNG, infrastructure distribution of CNG, security of CNG supply and storage, conversion of diesel buses to CNG, operation of interstate and tourists buses, and financial incentives for promotion of CNG buses. After assessment of these issues, EPCA made following recommendations:

EPCA submitted its report on "Clean Fuels" with above recommendations to the Hon’ble Supreme Court in the first week of July 2001.

14.2.2 Standards for CNG Vehicles and Refilling Stations

While hearing the matter, the Hon'ble Supreme Court vide its order dated April 4, 2001 in W.P.(C) No. 13029/85 directed as follows:

"We request the Bhure Lal committee to examine the existing standards for CNG vehicles including conversion of vehicles to CNG mode and for the CNG refilling stations and submit report to this court for our consideration."

EPCA held discussions with the following organizations to have their views on the issue:

EPCA also discussed the issue with experts from overseas: Mr. Frank Dursbeck from Germany; Mr. Christopher S. Weaver from USA, and, Mr. Lennart Erlandsson from Sweden.

As desired by the Hon’ble Supreme Court, EPCA submitted its report on "Standards for CNG Vehicles and Refilling Stations" which includes following recommendations:

i. Conversion of Old CNG Vehicles to CNG Mode

a) To achieve the best possible results for the conversion of existing buses to CNG, we recommend retrofitting (i.e. exchange of the old diesel engine for a new OEM CNG engine) rather than conversion (i.e. fitting a CNG conversion kit on an existing diesel bus).

b) Both converted buses and retrofitted vehicles should meet Bharat Stage II emission standards for gaseous pollutants. While particulate pollution is not a problem from a converted bus, other emissions like that of CO and NOx should be regulated as per the Bharat Stage II emission norms.

c) Engine converters should be required to obtain a new type approval for each separate diesel engine model they seek to retrofit/convert. The present provision of extension of type approval certificate to other engine/kit combination than the one originally submitted for type approval should not be allowed.

d) In order to avoid deficient installations, each and every converted bus must undergo inspection of the engine and high-pressure fuel storage system before being allowed to enter service. This inspection programme should subsequently be extended to comprise periodic inspections (at least annually) on all operating CNG buses for emissions and safety compliance. This inspection should be equivalent to the conformity of production (COP) inspections for OEM buses. Furthermore, it should comply with the respective regulations prevalent in other countries. The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways needs to set inspection norms for:

e) According to the rules, the Department of Transport of GNCTD is responsible for safety and roadworthiness inspection. But realising that their inspectors lack expertise in the field of CNG vehicles, we recommend that the task of inspecting every converted bus for its engine and high pressure fuel storage system before it enters service, be entrusted to the Gas Authority of India Ltd (GAIL) and the Indraprastha Gas Ltd (IGL), who are having requisite expertise.

ii. Norms for setting up of conversion workshops and development of technical infrastructure

    1. Ministry of Road Transport and Highways needs to issue technical and legal norms for the approval of conversion workshops.
    2. Concerned Ministries should initiate steps in cooperation with OEM manufacturers, conversion workshops and technical institutions to develop technical infrastructure such as trained workshop personnel, availability of spare parts, test resources, etc to make it possible to enforce strict emissions standards.

iii. OEM CNG Vehicles

  1. All new CNG buses should meet Bharat Stage II emission standards. In fact, the new buses already meet Bharat Stage II emission standards.
  2. Procedures for the durability testing, emissions warranty and other commitments to be made by the manufacturer of the engine should be laid down by the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways.

iv. Need for more stringent emissions standards for future CNG vehicles

    1. MRTH may be asked to notify Euro IV equivalent standards for new CNG buses from 2005 and simultaneously provide fiscal incentives for achieving European Environmentally Enhanced Vehicles standards.
    2. Test procedure for engines using gaseous fuels such as CNG be changed from a "steady state" test to a "transient" test as this type of test is more representative of actual driving on the road under various conditions.

v. Quality of Natural Gas

Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas may be asked to lay down the specifications of pipeline gas. The gas composition, as indicated by methane content and the Wobbe index (indicator to measure the effect of changes in gas composition on air-fuel ratio and engine combustion) should be laid down.

vi. Safety Aspects in CNG Refilling Stations

    1. Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas may be asked to review the layout of the dispensing stations to ensure easy approachability to dispensers and protection of the installed pumps.
    2. Standardise all vehicle-refuelling receptacles or nozzles on the NGV-1 standard to reduce filling time, minimise safety risk posed by leakage of gas due to O-ring failure, and allow more efficient use of existing compression capacity.

vii. Certification and Testing of CNG Vehicles

The capabilities and capacities of the type approval institutions should be improved in order to reduce the duration of the type approval procedure to reasonable, internationally common time frames. The type approval procedure including the "Information on Technical Specification to be Submitted by Manufacturer" of testing agencies needs to be reviewed in order to delete unnecessary test items and administrative procedures, and to make the system more cost-effective and less time consuming. A complete test should not take more than three weeks, and for minor modifications, specified by a competent authority, the vehicle should not need to undergo the complete new type approval procedure. Rather, only those parts affected by the changes should require testing.

viii. High-pressure Cylinders and Piping for Storage of CNG on Board Motorised Vehicles

The Bureau of Indian Standards may be asked to lay down standards for high-pressure cylinders and piping for the on board storage of CNG as a fuel for automotive vehicles on the lines of prevailing international standards such as ISO-11439 Gas cylinders – "High-pressure Cylinders for the On-board Storage of Natural Gas as a Fuel for Automotive Vehicles".

14.2.3 Adulteration of Fuels

The Hon’ble Supreme Court while hearing I.A. No. 151 of the Writ Petition No. 13029/1985 filed by Delhi Petrol Dealers Association gave the following directive in its order dated November 22, 2001:

"Copy of this application be also forwarded to Shri Bhure Lal who should constitute an agency which would independently carry out random inspection at the petrol pumps, oil depots and tank lorries in Delhi and give a report with regard to the quality of petrol and diesel available there. It will not be necessary for such an agency to give advance notice before lifting samples as it will be helpful if there is an element of surprise".

To ascertain the existing procedures for checking adulteration of fuel and to formulate a work plan for conducting surprise checks and independent fuel testing, EPCA discussed the matter with the representatives of the Anti-Adulteration Wing of the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MoP&NG), Department of Food and Civil Supplies, Govt. of NCT Delhi, Society for Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM) and the Society for Fuel Testing Laboratory (FTL) Noida. EPCA submitted an interim report to the Hon’ble Supreme Court, which included following issues that emerged out of these deliberations:

    1. The Anti-Adulteration Wing set up under the aegis of the MoP&NG and Department of Food and Civil Supplies have periodically collected the samples of fuels supplied through the retail outlets. The samples have been tested by the FTL at NOIDA and these were found to be complying with the fuel quality specifications laid down by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS);
    2. According to the Anti-Adulteration Wing, although adulteration of fuels could not be detected, certain irregularities and malpractices such as stock variation, short delivery and seal tampering were observed during inspection in some of the retail outlets;
    3. It is possible to meet the broad range of BIS specification of fuel quality with an intelligent mix of adulterants to the extent of 5 to 10 per cent. As such, it is difficult to detect adulteration in fuels unless there is a gross violation which makes a distinct variation from the specifications;
    4. The adulteration in the fuels includes a range of low priced hydrocarbons such as Naptha, PDS Kerosene, improperly refined waste oil and solvents. To control the use of Naptha as a solvent for adulteration, the MoP&NG has enforced two ordinances. However, a foolproof system to prevent the use of various adulterants does not exist. To this objective, production, sales end use of such commodities will have to be regulated through proper pricing and other measures which need to be examined;
    5. Besides testing of fuel, fuel samples in regard to compliance of BIS specifications, possibilities for prescribing testing procedures to check the presence of specific categories of adulterants will also need to be examined; and,
    6. The existing system of inspection of Anti-Adulteration Wing of MoP&NG, the Food and Civil Supply Department, Govt. of NCT Delhi needs improvement to ensure independent and surprise checking. An important step in this regard will be to involve representatives of NGOs/Consumer groups.

Subsequently, EPCA authorized the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) as an agency to carry out random inspection of petrol pumps, oil depots and tank lorries. Based on the results received from FTL and observations during sampling, CSE submitted a draft report to EPCA. A copy of the draft report was provided to the Regional Level Coordinator of the Oil Companies to elicit their comments. The comments made by the Oil Companies were discussed in the presence of representatives of the Oil Companies on 4.2.2002. The report was then finalized taking into account the comments of the Oil Companies and submitted to the Hon’ble Supreme Court in February 2002. Major findings and recommendations of the report are as follow:

The tests conducted by the laboratories including the laboratory set up under the direction from the Supreme Court for checking adulteration are not adequate to detect adulteration.

In addition to the direction to the EPCA, the Honourable Supreme Court has also ordered the Department of Food and Civil Supplies under the Government of Delhi to organise special drive to check adulteration of diesel. Thus the element of surprise was missing.

The report however finds that it is irrelevant to count the number of adulterated samples as found in the lab. The findings show that the current fuel quality specifications and testing methods designed for fuel quality monitoring are not adequate to detect adulteration.

Detecting adulterants in petrol is as much difficult under the current BIS specifications. An intelligent mix can be worked out very precisely keeping in view the outer limit of the specs. We have found that it is actually possible to calculate the amount of adulterant a fuel can take and still meet the BIS specifications. For instance, 91 octane petrol can be adulterated with 15 per cent low aromatic naphtha and still be within the minimum limit of 88 octane. Even if one considers 89 octane petrol in the market, it can still take 6 per cent naphtha mix. But 10-15 per cent adulteration can be immensely profitable. By mixing only 15 per cent naphtha with petrol a retail outlet can reap nearly, Rs 32,000 profit per day.

The sulphur content in diesel at the retail outlet varies between 200 ppm to 300 ppm, and astonishingly, nearly 3 per cent of the samples record 100-149 ppm level – a level, which refineries do not even produce. The petrol sulphur spec at the retail end varies between 200 ppm to up to 500 ppm sulphur content.

The report concludes that in addition to improving the current testing procedures and fuel specifications, it is even more important to design alternative testing methods specifically designed to detect adulteration.

The study clearly indicate that serious steps are required to improve the system in order to prevent and check adulteration. The current system is compromised from testing methods that are not adequate to detect adulteration to penalty systems designed to let the manufacturers go scot-free. Distorted prices continue to encourage adulteration.

a) Quality of fuel at the retail end

As of now, the responsibility and penalty are fragmented along the supply chain. Though retailers and the transporters are penalised by the oil companies if malpractices occur, the oil companies are not held accountable. The best way that consumer pressure can be intensified on the oil companies to develop a system of public rating of the retail outlets on a monthly basis based on an independent inspection, testing and audit of the outlet. The quality based public rating will discipline the supply chain and may prevent the widespread malady.

b) Improved testing procedures and tightening of fuel quality standards

The tightening of the fuel quality standards and regulating some key parameters like aromatics, olefins in petrol, and PAH in diesel is required.

c) Alternative testing procedures for more accurate detection

For more accurate detection alternative testing methods and protocols should be adopted straight away and applied for surveillance. It is possible to create a library of different refinery samples of automotive fuels and possible adulterants. With the help of the standard library chromatogram, it will be much easier to detect fuel adulteration.

14.2.4 Conversion of vehicles to CNG

According to Hon’ble Supreme Court order, entire bus fleet of Delhi was to be converted to CNG by 31.3.2001. The autos and taxies were also directed to convert to clean fuel/CNG. However as on 31.3.2001 only, 1600 buses, 25,000 autos and 10,000 cars including 1100 taxis were operating on CNG mode. The Hon’ble Supreme Court, vide order, dated 26th March, 20001 extended the target date of conversion of entire bus fleet to CNG by September, 2001 subject to booking of new vehicle on CNG or for conversion kit and submission of affidavit by the vehicle owners that they will convert their vehicle by that time. The Hon’ble Supreme Court further extended the time limit up to January 31, 2002. Delhi Govt. has filed affidavit in the Court to phase out 200 buses every month as per increase in availability of CNG.

As on March 31, 2002, there are about 57,240 CNG vehicles including 2120 DTC and 2111 private buses, 2165 RTVs, 4816 taxis, 35678 autos and 10350 private cars. As per the recent direction of the Hon’ble Supreme Court, autos can operate using cleaner petrol with 1 % benzene and 0.05 % sulphur contents.

Recently, the Hon’ble Supreme Court directed to fine Rs. 500/- per day on diesel buses and Rs. 1000/- per day w.e.f. May 8, 2002 if they ply till the entire bus fleet is converted to CNG mode.

14.2.5 CNG Supply Infrastructure

As per the Hon’ble Supreme Court order dated April 5, 2002, the IGL to make available 16.1 lacs kg of CNG per day in the NCT of Delhi by 30.6.2002. IGL was requested to apprise the EPCA about their preparedness in complying with the order. As on 12.4.2002, IGL has installed a total of 79 compressors comprising of 30 mothers, 23 on-line and 26 daughter booster compressors. The total capacity of mother and online compressors is 33573 kg per hour, considering 18 hours working in a day. The daily capacity of compressors to fill up CNG works out to be 604314 kg against which sales is around 5 lacs kg per day.

At present, there are 94 CNG compressors in operation which include 17 mother station on IGL land, 9 mother stations on DTC land, 13 on-line stations, 26 daughter booster stations and 29 daughter stations. As on March 31, 2002, 57240 CNG vehicles were in operation which consists of 2120 DTC buses, 2111 private buses, 35678 three wheelers, 2165 RTV/Mini buses, 10350 private cars and 4816 taxies. In March 2001, the number of CNG vehicles were 26350 only with 200 DTC buses, 200 private buses, 250 RTVs, 14000 three wheelers, 2200 taxis and 9500 cars.

To increase the CNG despairing capacity to 6.9 lacs kg per day 5 nos. of additional compressors are expected to be commissioned by the end of June 2002. In addition to above 8 compressors have also been ordered which are expected to be commissioned by September 2002 to make a dispensing capacity of 8.29 lacs kg per day. In order to meet the demand of CNG, 7 more compressors are being procured which will increase the capacity to 9.6 lacs kg per day by December, 2002. At some locations compressors and dispensers will be doubled to increase the additional bus filling capacity.

In order to meet the requirement of 16.1 lacs kg CNG per day, a total of 110 numbers of compressors will be required. At present, 53 compressors are under operation, 5 compressors are under commissioning, delivery of another compressors are 8 expected between June to August, 2002, and order for 7 compressors are being placed, fresh tendering have to be done for the remaining 37 compressors. EPCA is of the opinion that the CNG supply plans are not adequate to meet the target fixed by the Hon’ble Court.

14.2.6 Safety of CNG Vehicles

In view of fire accidents in few CNG buses, EPCA discussed the mater with bus manufacturers, Transport Department, DTC so as to assure preventive measures. The main causes of accidents were reported due to gas pipe disconnection, structural failure and gas leak filling.

The manufacturers informed that they have analysed the root causes for the accidents and adopted additional safety kits in the buses in order to avoid future accidents. To vent out gas from under floor to roof top vent pipes have been installed in most of the buses. It was also informed that the bus manufacturers have taken precautions so that the extra spark generated in the distribution chambers get arrested and does not travel to the exhaust pump. Besides this, pamphlets are being provided which contain all precautionary measures to be taken before and during body building of the buses and other guidelines to be followed during gas fillings and gas leakages.

EPCA asked the bus manufacturers to exercise checks during the body building, which may supplement the STA certification. The bus manufacturers may also recall the vehicle, if body is not built as per their specifications. It was pointed out by EPCA that according to report submitted by the experts earlier, spark plug ignition need to be replaced by contact less electronics ignition system.

14.2.7 Common Effluent Treatment Plant

As per Hon’ble Supreme Court order, 15 common effluent treatment plants (CETPs) are to be constructed by Delhi Industrial Development Corporation (DSIDC). EPCA has constantly pursued the issue of CETPs with concerned agencies i.e. CETP Societies, Delhi Pollution Control Committee (DPCC) and Delhi State Industrial Development Corporation (DSIDC). The status on construction of 15 CETPs is presented in Table 14.1.

Table 14.1 Status of Construction of CETP’s in NCT - Delhi

S.

No

Location

Status of CETP’s as on January 14, 2002

1.

CETP at Wazirpur Industrial Area

The construction work has been taken up in October, 1999 with scheduled date of completion as June, 2001. The construction of plant completed and trial run started from 12.10.2001.

2.

Mangolpuri Industrial Area

The construction work has been taken up in September 1999 with scheduled date of completion as April 2001. The trial run of the plant started on 28.11.2001. The plant is designed to treat 2.4 mld of wastewater..

3.

Mayapuri Industrial Area

The construction work for primary ETP was taken up in November, 1999 and scheduled to be completed by June, 2001. The construction work of CETP is complete and trial run started by first week of February 2002.

4.

Jhilmil Industrial Area

The construction work for primary treatment plant was taken up in September, 2000 and scheduled to be completed by May, 2002. The plant is designed to treat 16.8 mld of wastewater. 90% work of conveyance of effluent from Friends Colony Industrial area is complete and the excavation work for raw effluent pumping station in Jhilmil Colony Industrial Area is in progress.

5.

Lawrence Road Industrial Area

The construction work for primary treatment plant has been taken up in November, 2000 and scheduled to be completed by May 2002. However, completion of work is likely to be delayed by 3-4 months. The plant is designed to treat 12 mld of wastewater.

6.

Badli Industrial Area

The construction work for primary, secondary and tertiary treatment plant has been taken up in December, 2000 and scheduled to be completed by October 2002. About 50% of the civil work has been completed. The plant is designed to treat 12 mld of wastewater.

7.

GT Karnal Road Industrial Area

The construction work for primary, secondary and tertiary treatment plant has been taken up in December, 2000 and scheduled to be completed by August 2002. About 50% of the civil work has been completed. The plant is designed to treat 6 mld of wastewater.

8.

SMA Industrial Area

The construction work for primary, secondary and tertiary treatment plant has been taken up in January, 2001 and scheduled to be completed by September, 2002. About 30% of the civil work has been completed. The plant is designed to treat 12 mld of wastewater.

9.

Nangloi Industrial Area

The construction work for primary, secondary and tertiary treatment plant has been taken up in January, 2001 and scheduled to be completed by September, 2002. About 60% of the civil work has been completed and all the pressure filter vessels are received. The plant is designed to treat 12 mld of wastewater.

10.

Okhla Industrial Area

The construction work for primary, secondary and tertiary treatment plant has been taken up in December, 2000 and scheduled to be completed by June, 2002. About 80% of the civil work has been completed and filters have also been arrived at the site. The plant is designed to treat 24 mld of wastewater.

11.

Okhla Industrial Estate

The Society has raised objections regarding design of the CETP, which they have got prepared from Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi. The revised proposal has been sent to NEERI for the approval.

12.

Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area

The tenders for award of work has been invited.

13.

Naraina Industrial Area

The tenders for award of work has been invited

14.

Najafgarh Road Industrial Area

The tenders for award of work has been

15.

Anand Parbat Industrial Area

Transferred to DDA, which has to develop the area. However, there is court stay, which need to be vacated.


14.2.8 Report on P.K. Kaul Committee Recommendations

The P.K. Kaul Committee, constituted by the Hon’ble Supreme Court in the matter of W.P.(C) No. 914/1996 recommended 34-point action plan to improve treatment and disposal of sewage and industrial wastewater from trans-Yamuna area. As per the order of the Hon’ble Supreme Court dated November 16, 1998, EPCA is monitoring the implementation of the action plan.

The Hon’ble Supreme Court vide its order dated May 4, 2001 referred the affidavits of Delhi Jal Board (DJB) and Ghaziabad Development Authority (GDA) to EPCA and directed as follows:

"The Bhure Lal Committee is requested to examine the various affidavits which have been filed in this Court, copies of which should be forwarded to the said Committee, in relation to the implementation of the P.K. Kaul Committee’s Report. The needful be done and the Report submitted within three months. In the meantime various government agencies will endeavour to do whatever is required to be done."

Accordingly, EPCA examined the affidavits and held discussions with DJB, GDA and U.P. Pollution Control Board on the issue. Based on the submissions of these organizations, EPCA prepared "Second Report on P.K. Kaul Committee Recommendations" and submitted to the Hon’ble Supreme Court.

14.3 MOEF – ENVIRONMENT CANADA INSTITUTIONAL STRENGTHENING PROJECT – IMPLEMENTATION OF SUB-COMPONENT ON AIR QUALITY MONITORING BY CENTRAL POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD

The Project Canada - India Environmental Institutional Strengthening Project (MOEF-EC Project) is a five year (2000-2005) project funded by Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and implemented by Environment Canada with approx. project cost of Canadian Dollars 4.73 Millions. The implementation of project has started during August 2000 and will end in September 2005. The basic objectives of the project are to strengthen the institutional capacity of India’s MOEF to promote environmentally sound development with national priorities and to address environmental issues of global concern.

The project plan have three well developed component (Table 14.2) apart from project management component. The Sub-component Air Quality Monitoring under Project component Air Emission Monitoring and control is implemented by Central Pollution Control Board. The sub-component has provision of training of Indian officials in Canada on Monitoring of Air Toxics such as VOC, Semi-VOC and Calibration & Auditing of Instruments. There has also provision for external validation of training programme and improvement therein by EC Technical Experts during their short-term assignment to Central Pollution Control Board. Under the project component, two training sessions for two CPCB Scientists each, were held at Environment Technology Centre (ETC), Ottawa, Canada.

Table 14.2: Project Component of Canada India Institutional Strengthening Project

Main Project Component

Project Sub-Component

 

Air Emission monitoring and control

Air quality monitoring.

Conversion of Auto rickshaws to CNG.

 

Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes

Sub regional training and technology transfer centre for environmentally sound management of hazardous waste.

Custom feasibility study – Training and equipment.

National Chemical Profile.

Emerging Environmental issues

Improvement of institutional capacity for global environmental issues and emerging environmental issues.

Training and other capacity building activities.

Workshop on bio-technology applications for pollution prevention and remediation.

    1. BIO-MEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT

14.4.1 Delhi

As per the Biomedical Waste (Management and Handing) Rules, 2000, all the hospitals and nursing homes are required to provide treatment facilities for their wastes. EPCA has taken up the matter with concerned organizations i.e. Department of Environment, Department of Health and DPCC. As informed by the organizations, the status on installation of treatment facilities as on August 11, 2001 is as below

    1. All the 45 hospitals with more than 500 beds have provided facilities for treatment and disposal of their bio-medical wastes.
    2. For collection and treatment of bio-medical wastes from other hospitals and nursing homes, DPCC has authorized two private companies namely, M/s Synergy Waste Management Co. and M/s India Waste Development Ltd.. At present, these companies collect and treat wastes from about 1300 hospitals and nursing homes. Out of 10 tonnes per day wastes generated by these units, 1.5 tonnes of infectious waste is collected and incinerated.

Govt. of NCT of Delhi has allowed M/s India Waste Development Ltd. to utilize spare capacity of incineration available with Deendayal Upadhyaya Hospital, Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Babu Jagjeevan Ram Hospital and Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Hospital.

14.4.2 West Bengal

A report on the status of implementation of Bio-medical Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1998 in hospitals with bed strength exceeding 500 in towns with population less than 30 lakhs in the State of West Bengal was prepared. In this State, the SHSDP under the Family Welfare and Health Department of the Government of West Bengal is executing a major action plan aided by the World Bank focussed on delivery of an efficient health services system to the public. The thrust of the action plan with reference to bio-medical waste management was to develop a system that is `scientific, economical and sustainable'. The scale of implementation of the West Bengal's SHSDP is formidable, covering 117 health care units and ten major hospitals.

Some of the salient observations are:

Besides above, lack of pre-treatment (chemical disinfection) of BMW, no rainproof roof at most of the central vats within the hospital premise, inconvenient locations of the autoclave room vis-à-vis the central vats, odd timings of BMW movement, unsatisfactory maintenance around the vats and lack of proper gear for waste handlers, are areas that need more attention. Besides, there was a reluctance of most of the municipalities to address BMW separately and even in utilizing SHSDP funds for construction of a burial pit for BMW in their dumping grounds needs to be addressed too.

14.4.3 Bangalore

Detailed inspections were carried out in some of the selected hospitals in order to have a feel of implementation of Bio-Medical Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1998. An indexing system was developed, as shown in Table 14.3, to quantify the compliance scenario in the Bangalore City.

Table 14.3: Bio-Medical Waste Management Practices in Bangalore

 

Hospitals

Handling and Transportation

Segregation

Incineration

Disposal

Autoclaving

Effluent Treatment

Total

Manipal Hospital

3

3

5

5

-

3

19

St. Martha’s Hospital

3

3

3

3

-

2

14

Bangalore Baptist Hospital

3

3

3

3

-

1

13

St. John's Hospital

3

3

3

3

-

-

12

M.S. Ramaiah Medical Institute

1

2

3

3

-

3

12

Sanjay Gandhi Accidental Hospital

3

3

3

2

-

-

11

Mallya Hospital

3

3

1

1

-

1

9

Minto Hospital

3

5

-

1

-

-

9

Govt. T.B. Hospital

3

3

-

2

-

-

8

K.C. General Hospital

3

2

-

1

-

-

6

Note: Good= 5, Satisfactory= 3, Improper = 2, and Poor = 1.

The estimation in the above table is based on the following negations recorded during the inspections:

14.6 HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT

14.6.1 Identification of Hazardous Waste Streams, their Characterisation and Waste Minimisation Options in various Industrial Sectors

CPCB has undertaken the project on "Identification of Hazardous Wastes, their Characterisation and Waste Minimisation Options in Petrochemical, Pesticides, Dye & Dye Intermediates and Bulk Drugs & Pharmaceutical Sectors" with a view to identify various hazardous waste streams generated from unit operations during production, estimation of hazardous waste generation per tonne of product and characterisation of hazardous waste streams, for suitable treatment and disposal. The study for Petrochemicals and Pesticides sectors have been completed. The findings, in terms of products-wise hazardous waste streams identified and existing waste management practices are given in Table 14.3 & 14.4 for Pesticide sectors.

Table 14.3: Product-wise Hazardous Waste Streams Identified in Pesticides Sector

Product

Waste Streams

Monocrotophos

Process waste (Organic residue)

ETP waste (Calcium phosphate sludge)

Bio-sludge

Profenophos

Process waste (Phenolic residue)

ETP sludge (Calcium phosphate sludge)

Bio-sludge

Acephate

Process waste (Organic mother liquor)

ETP sludge (Chemical sludge)

Chloropyriphos

Process Waste (Distillation residue)

ETP sludge (Chemical sludge)

Bio-sludge

Ethion

Process waste (Distillation residue)

ETP chemical sludge

Zinc phosphide

Process waste (Phosphorus sludge)

Process waste (Phosphoric acid clarification sludge

Aluminium phosphite

Process waste (Phosphorous sludge)

Process waste (Phosphoric acid clarification)

Endosulfan

Process waste (Toluene distillation residue)

ETP sludge (Chemical sludge)

Cypermethrin

Process waste (Detoxification sludge)

ETP sludge (Chemical sludge)

Fenvalerate

Process waste (Organic residue)

Process waste (Detoxification sludge)

ETP sludge

Malathion

Process waste (Organic residue)

ETP sludge (Chemical sludge)

Dimethoate

Process waste (Organic residue)

ETP sludge

Table 14.4: Waste Stream-wise Existing Waste Management Practices Adopted by
Pesticide Industry

Product

Waste Streams

Disposal

 

Monocrotophos

Process waste (Organic residue)

Incineration

ETP waste (Calcium phosphate sludge)

Sold to poultry feed manufacturers

Bio-sludge

Recycled, excess to landfill

 

Profenophos

Process waste (Phenolic residue)

Incineration

ETP sludge (Calcium phosphate sludge)

Sold to poultry feed manufacturers

Bio-sludge

Recycled, excess to landfill

Acephate

Process waste (Organic mother liquor)

Incineration

ETP sludge (Chemical sludge)

Landfill

 

Chloropyriphos

Process Waste (Distillation residue)

Incineration

ETP sludge (Chemical sludge)

Landfill

Bio-sludge

Recycled, excess to landfill

Ethion

Process waste (Distillation residue)

Incineration

ETP chemical sludge

Landfill

Zinc phosphide

Process waste (Phosphorus sludge)

Incineration

Process waste (Phosphoric acid clarification sludge

Incineration

Aluminium phosphite

Process waste (Phosphorous sludge)

Incineration

Process waste (Phosphoric acid clarification)

Incineration

Endosulfan

Process waste (Toluene distillation residue)

Incineration

ETP sludge (Chemical sludge)

Landfill

Cypermethrin

Process waste (Detoxification sludge)

Incineration

ETP sludge (Chemical sludge)

Landfill

Fenvalerate

Process waste (Organic residue)

Incineration

Process waste (Detoxification sludge)

Dried and incineration

ETP sludge

Landfill

Malathion

Process waste (Organic residue)

Incineration

ETP sludge (Chemical sludge)

Landfill

Dimethoate

Process waste (Organic residue)

Incineration

ETP sludge

Landfill

14.6.2 Waste Disposal Criteria, Leachate Standard and Guideline for Treatment & Disposal of Leachate Generated in Hazardous Waste Disposal Facilities

According to the schedule 4 of the Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1989 and amended thereof, one of the responsibility of CPCB is to recommend the standards for treatment & disposal of waste and leachate. In view of this, CPCB has taken a study to prepare guidelines 1) Criteria for Hazardous Waste Disposal; 2) Leachate Standard; and 3) Guideline for Collection, Treatment & Disposal of Leachate.

Hazardous waste disposal criteria, leachate standard and its collection, treatment & disposal options were presented and discussed in the previous Peer & Core Committee meeting. It was decided in Peer & Core Committee that a Sub Committee be constituted by CPCB to examine the above issues further. The sub committee suggested some changes in the draft guidelines, which are given below:

Suggested Criteria for Disposal of Hazardous Wastes into Secured Landfill Facility:

In general, the following qualitative requirements should be considered for the disposal of hazardous wastes in secured landfill. The wastes coming to the facility should pass through paint filter test. The following listed wastes should not be allowed to dispose of directly (without pre-treatment) into the landfill facility: -

Water leachate extraction quality

Concentration

Suggested concentration

pH

4 – 13

4 – 12

Total Phenols

< 100 mg/l

Same as Column (2)

Arsenic (As)

< 1 mg/l

Same as Column (2)

Lead (Pb)

< 2 mg/l

Same as Column (2)

Cadmium (Cd)

0.2 mg/l

< 0.2 ppm

Hexavalent Chromium (Cr±6)

< 0.5 mg/l

Same as Column (2)

Copper (Cu)

< 10 mg/l

Same as Column (2)

Nickel (Ni)

< 3 mg/l

Same as Column (2)

Mercury (Hg)

< 0.2 mg/l

Same as Column (2)

Zinc (Zn)

< 10 mg/l

Same as Column (2)

Fluoride

< 50 mg/l

Same as Column (2)

Ammonia

< 1000 mg/l

Same as Column (2)

Cyanide (Cn)

< 2 mg/l

Same as Column (2)

Nitrate

< 30 mg/l

Same as Column (2)

Adsorbable organic bound chlorine

< 3 mg/l

Same as Column (2)

Water soluble content

< 10 mg/l

Same as Column (2)

Strength of viscose solid HW before disposal into SLF

Transverse strength (Vane testing)

> 25 KN/m2

Same as Column (2)

Unconfined compression strength

> 50 KN/m2

Same as Column (2)

Axial deformation

< 20 KN/m2

Same as Column (2)

Degree of mineralisation or content of organic materials

Annealing loss of the dry residue at 5500C

< 10 wt %

20% of non-biodegradable

5% of bio-degradable

Oil & Grease

< 4 wt %

Same as Column (2)

Note : Under the disposal criteria w.r.t. water soluble bearing waste, it was suggested that "water soluble bearing waste be stored in HDPE bags having thickness not less than 1 mm & then it should be stored in SLF. Otherwise, waste containing soluble salts should be stored separately".

Suggested approach for treatment of leachate

Based on the characteristics of leachate generated from treatment, storage & disposal facility (TSDF), following treatment schemes have been suggested in order of preference:

    1. Treatment in an off-site existing wastewater treatment plant, after on-site pre-treatment, if required.
    2. Complete Treatment in an on-site leachate treatment plant.

    1. Off-site treatment-disposal of leachate refers to treatment and disposal at a facility not associated with the landfill operation. The off-site treatment-disposal alternatives include industrial Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs) and/or Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (MWTP). Off-site treatment of leachate will be feasible only in few cases such as:

    1. The industrial CETPs or MWTPs available at reasonable distances.

    1. These treatment plants are capable of treating the leachate generated from hazardous waste disposal sites technically. The permit requirements of CETPs and MWTPs are met while handling the leachate.
    2. CETPs and MWTPs are ready to accept the potential liabilities associated with accepting hazardous leachate because the leachate generated will be varying in composition as well as in quantity.

(b) On-site treatment / disposal of leachate can be used to accomplish either pre-treatment of the leachate to discharge to another facility for additional treatment before disposal, or complete treatment to meet direct discharge limits. Pre-treatment process will be governed by the capabilities of the subsequent off-site treatment facility. In some cases on-site treatment/ disposal may not be feasible due to the following reasons:

On-site treatment / pre-treatment options for leachate

As the nature and characteristics of leachate generated from various landfills varies to a large extent, the treatment scheme has to be selected on case to case basis. For the treatment of the leachate as generated in India based on the general characteristics, the following on-site treatment schemes would be feasible technically:

On-Site Treatment Options for Treatment of Leachate are:

OPTION-1 : When TDS conc. in leachate is high i.e > 10,000 mg/l.

(a) Multiple-stage evaporation of the leachate - This method of leachate treatment is suitable when the leachate is having very high TDS concentration and it hinders biological treatment (above 10,000 mg/l). In the above treatment scheme the leachate is to be first evaporated in a two stage evaporator. The volatile organics are vaporized and condensed in a condenser. The residue after evaporation is separated in a centrifugal separator. The solid residue, which mainly contains soluble salts, is disposed in a special disposal facility after packing in HDPE bags. The condensed organic portion is partially chemically oxidised with H2O2 in a reaction tank. This is for making the organics more easily biodegradable. The partially oxidised condensate is to be taken for biological treatment in an activated sludge process. If required the treated effluent may have to be given a polishing treatment (like carbon adsorption) before discharge into a surface water body, in order to meet the regulatory standards.

However, the following options can be considered with regard to the type of organics present in the leachate and quantity:

(b) Discharge of leachate into marine coastal areas – Leachate with TDS above 10,000 mg/l can be discharged into marine coastal areas provided it meets the Marine disposal standards.

OPTION 2 : When TDS concentration in leachate is low.

(a) Leachate flow is sufficient enough for continuous treatment

The two leading processes for treating organics are biological treatment and activated carbon adsorption. If the organics consist solely of biodegradable compounds, then biological treatment alone would suffice, although a subsequent solids removal and polishing step could be necessary in some situations. Under that scheme the following three options are suggested:

Biological Treatment followed by Granulated Activated Carbon (GAC) process:

This scheme shall be applicable when the organics present in the leachate are refractory but not toxic in nature and concentration is high.

GAC followed by Biological Treatment Process:

This sequence is used when toxic organics would interfere with the biological process.

Biophysical Treatment:

This biophysical treatment approach is the combination of simultaneous biological (activated sludge) and Powdered Activated carbon (PAC) treatment processes in the bio-reactor. This approach would be applicable when the organics present in the leachate are of persistent nature.

(b) Leachate flow is not sufficient enough for continuous treatment

Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) – Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR)

This is batch process of bio-treatment in Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR) filled with Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC). This process utilises the advantages of simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation in a SBR.

14.6.3 Review of Guideline for Disposal of Drill Cuttings/Drilling Fluids from Oil Drilling Operations

The oil drilling operators submitted representations to Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) & CPCB for review of existing guidelines notified by MoEF, Govt. of India in 1996 under Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 for disposal of drill cuttings (DC)/drilling fluids (DF) being generated from on-shore and off-shore oil drilling operations. CPCB has taken up review of the guidelines for safe disposal of DC or DF being generated from on-shore/off-shore oil drilling operations. The proposed (reviewed) guidelines were discussed in the meeting of Peer & Core Expert Committee of CPCB. Highlights of guidelines as finalised in the 17th Peer & Core Committee meeting are as follows:

14.6.4 Preparation of Laboratory Manual and Training on Characterisation & Analysis of Hazardous Waste"

According to the Schedule 4 of the Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Amendment Rules, 2000, the responsibility of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) is to recommend procedures for characterisation of hazardous waste. The CPCB has taken-up a project for preparation of above manual in collaboration with Environmental Protection and Training Research Institute (EPTRI), Hyderabad. The manual has been finalised.

The report includes sampling, analysis and characterisation of hazardous waste. For reference the sampling approach overview, applicability of sampling equipment and methods for characterisation of hazardous waste are given in Table 14.5 to 14.7:

                                                          Table 14.5: Sampling Approach Overview

Sampling Strategy

Definition

Applicability

Advantages/Disadvantages

Authoritative

Technique where sample locations are selected based on detailed knowledge of the waste stream without regard to randomization.

Waste streams of known physical/chemical properties and concentrations.

Requires in-depth knowledge of properties and constituents of waste streams. Rationale for sample selection must be well documented and defensible.

Random (Simple, Stratified, systematic)

Techniques where sample selection and location are determined through the application of statistical methods.

Used to collect representative samples where data is insufficient to justify authoritative sampling (e.g., waste streams of unknown or variable concentration).

See discussions below for each respective random sampling technique.

Simple Random

All locations/points in a waste or unit from which a sample can be attained are identified, and a suitable number of samples are randomly selected.

Used to collect representative samples of wastes that are heterogeneous throughout the entire waste stream or unit (e.g., multiple drums of unknown origin).

Advantages: Most appropriate when little or no information is available concerning the distribution of chemical contaminants.

 

Disadvantages: May misrepresent waste streams with areas of high concentration or stratification.

Stratified Random

Areas of non-uniform properties or concentrations are identified and stratified (segregated). Subsequently, simple random samples are collected from each stratum of the waste or unit.

Used to collect representative samples from waste or units that are known to have areas of non-uniform properties (strata) or concentration (hot spots) e.g., surface impoundment with multiple waste layers.

Advantages: Provides for increased accuracy of waste streams representation if strata or a typically high or low concentration area is present.

Disadvantages: Requires greater knowledge of waste stream than for simple random sampling and nay require sophisticated statistical applications.

Systematic Random

The first sampling point is randomly selected but all subsequent samples are collected at fixed space intervals (e.g., along a transect or time intervals).

An alternate procedure used to collect representative samples from modestly heterogeneous waste streams that provide for simplified sample identification.

Advantages: Provides for easier sample identification and collection than other techniques.

 

Disadvantages: May misrepresent waste streams with unknown areas of high concentration or stratification.

Table 14.6: Applicability of Sampling Equipment to Waste Streams, Waste Location or Container

Waste Type

Drum

Sacks and Bags

Open-Bed Truck

Closed Bed Truck

Storage Tanks Or Bins

Waste Piles

Ponds, Lagoons & Pits

Conveyor Belt

Pipe

Free-flowing liquids and slurries

Coliwasa

N/A

N/A

Coliwasa

Weighted bottlea

N/A

Dipper

N/A

Dipper

Sludges

Trier

N/A

Trier

Trier

Trier

*

*

   

Moist powders or granules

Trier

Trier

Trier

Trier

Trier

Trier

Trier

Shovel

Dipper

Dry powders or granules

Thief

Thief

Thief

Thief

*

Trier

Thief

Shovel

Dipper

Sand or packed powders and granules

Auger

Auger

Auger

Auger

Thief

Thief

*

Dipper

Dipper

Large grained solids

Large Trier

Large Trier

Large Trier

Large Trier

Large Trier

Large Trier

Large Trier

Trier

Dipper

* This type of sampling situation can present significant logistical sampling problems, and sampling equipment must be specifically selected or designed based on site and waste conditions. No general statement about appropriate sampling equipment can be made.

                                                        Table 14.7 Parameters of Hazard Characteristic

Parameter hazard characteristic

Method

Ignitability

Setaflash closed-cup method USEPA Test method No. 1020.

Pensky Martens closed cup method USEPA Test method No. 1010

Corrosivity

PH electrometric measurement USEPA Test method No. 9040.

Toxicity

Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure Test method No. 1311.

In order to have desired capability for analysis and characterisation of hazardous waste, CPCB has conducted a four-day hands-on training programme to the laboratory personnel of State and Central Pollution Control Boards during August 28-31, 2001 at EPTRI, Hyderabad.

14.7 EPISODAL POLLUTION STUDIES

14.7.1 Breakage of underground Pipeline in Ankleshwar Industrial Estate

Ankleshwar Industrial Estate was found flooded with industrial effluents on the surface, on account of major blockades / breaches in effluent drainage pipelines all around and overflows from the three major pumping stations. This contaminates the ground water ultimately.

The CPCB team after visiting the site has taken action to stop overflow of industrial effluent through storm water drain. The course of action was taken by various agencies as given below sequentially.

14.7.2 Blow out of ONGC oil production well

During the study tour related to Development of National Emission Standard for Petrochemical industry at IPCL, Gandhar, it was reported by IPCL authorities that there was blow out of ONGC oil production well No. 345 located in Gandhar oil fields. The ONGC oil production well No. 345 is located in Gandhar oil fields near village Pakhajan. The distance of the well from IPCL Gandhar is around 25 Kilometers. The oil extraction capacity of the well is around 75 M3/hour and has depth of around 3800 meters. The Gandhar oil reservoir area is around 800 Sq. km.

The oil extraction pipe of production well seems to be damaged as a result of sabotage because of this. The crude oil & gas gushing out caught fire. It was observed that no fencing was provided near the well. The presence of oil & gas was observed coming out at very high force and forming thick smoke clouds in atmosphere. The ONGC has deployed crisis management team at the incident site for exploring the possibility to extinguish the fire.

    1. POLLUTED RIVER STRETCHES - IDENTIFICATION AND ACTION PLAN TO CONTROL OF WATER POLLUTION

The Central Board, in collaboration with concerned State Pollution Control Boards has initiated water quality monitoring at limited number of locations. The monitoring network was gradually augmented. At present there are 784 locations. The monitoring data are annually compiled, analysed and compared with desired water quality in different water bodies. Where ever gaps are observed especially with respect to pollution related indicators like Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), the water body is identified as polluted.

In 1988-89, CPCB identified 10 problem areas and 10 polluted river stretches to concentrate the pollution control efforts and the list of polluted stretches formed the basis for formulation of River Action Plan of the National River Conservation Directorate. The list was further extended based on increasing pollution problem in our country.

The water bodies having BOD more than 6 mg/l are identified as polluted water bodies. A list of such water bodies is placed ahead. The respective State Pollution Control Boards/Pollution Control Committees have been requested to formulate action plan to restore the water quality of the water bodies.

In order to achieve the compliance of the water quality criteria in the 85 polluted river stretches identified, the following action is required:

                                                                   List of Polluted River Stretches

River

Polluted Stretch

Source/Town

Critical Parameters (in mg/l)

Andhra Pradesh

River

     

Godavari

  1. Polavaram to D/S of Rajamundary

Rajamundary & Polavaram Sewage

BOD - 6-12

Nagavalli

  • Nagavalli along Thotapalli Regulator
  • Industrial & Domestic water from Rayagada

    BOD- 6-10

    Musi

  • D/S of Hyderabad
  • Hyderabad- Securanderabad-Sewage

    BOD- 16-44

    Lake

         
     
  • Kishtra Reddy Pet Tank, Medak
  • Medak Sewage

    BOD- 9-28

     
  • Dharamsagar tank, Warangal
  • Warangal Sewage

    BOD- 7.5-9.4

     
  • Hussain Sagar Lake
  • Hyderabad-Securandabad

    Sewage

    BOD- 8-19

     
  • Sarronagar Lake
  • Ranga Reddy Hyderabad

    BOD- 8.0-12.5

     
  • Pulicate Lake,Nellore
  • Nellore sewage

    BOD- 8-12.1

    Assam

    River

         

    Kalong

  • Elengabeel System
  • Nagaon- Sewage

    BOD- 10-70

    Bharalu

  • D/S Guwahati
  • Guwahati Sewage

    BOD- 38

    Delhi

    River

         

    Yamuna

  • Wazirabad to Okhla
  • Industrial & Domestic Waste from Delhi

    BOD- 6-77

     

    Jharkhand

    River

         

    Subarnrekha

  • Ranchi to D/S of Jamshedpur
  • Industrial & domestic

    waste from ranchi & Jamshedpur

    BOD

     

     

    Gujarat

    River

         

    Sabarmati

  • Ahmedabad to D/s of Vautha
  • Discharge from Meshwa

    & Ahemdabad

    BOD-56-504

     
  • Kankoria Lake,Ahemdabad
  • Municipal & Industrial waste from Ahemdabad

    BOD-6-29

    Amlakhadi

    1. Along Ankeshwar

    Industrial & Domestic waste from Ankeshwar

    BOD-138-920,

    Ammonia-117.6-201.60

    Shedi

  • Along Kheda
  • Kheda Sewage

    BOD- 8-19

    Damanganga

  • Vapi D/S to Confl. with sea
  • Industrial & Domestic waste from Vapi,Salvas,Daman & Kachigaon

    BOD- 9-10

    Ambika

  • Billimora D/S
  • Billimora Sewage

    BOD- 18

    Bhadar

  • Jetpur to Ratia (Junagarh)
  • Jetpur & Dhoraji Sewage

    BOD- 33

    Khari

  • Lali village, Ahemdabad
  •  

    BOD-92-675

    Kolak

  • Vapi to Patalia.
  • Vapi Industrial township Phase –III,IV & Daman Industrial area

    BOD- 11-35

    Par

  • Vapi to Patalia
  • Atul township & Industrial waste water, Pardi &Umarkhadi waste water

    BOD- 27

     

    Haryana

    River

         

    Ghaggar

  • Interstate border with Punjab to Ottu wier at Sirsa
  • Industrial & Municipal waste from Sirsa

    BOD-8-50

    Yamuna

  • Okhla to Kosi Kalan
  • Industrial & Domestic waste from Faridabad & Palwal

    BOD- 16

    Drain No.8

  • Sonepat to Confl. with Yamuna
  • Industrial & Domestic waste of Sonepat

    BOD-6-36

     

    Himachal Pradesh

    River

         

    Markanda

  • Kala Amb D/S to Haryana Border
  • Industrial & Domestic waste from Kala Amb

    BOD- 55

    Colour- 1009 Hazen

    Lake

         
     
  • Renuka Lake
  •  

    BOD- 8

    Karnataka

    River

         

    Bhadra

  • Maleshwaram to D/s of Bhadravathi
  • Industrial & Domestic

    waste from Bhadravathi

    BOD- 7.2

    Tunga

  • D/S of Shimoga
  • Shimoga Sewage

    BOD

    Kali

  • Along Dandeli Town
  • West Coast Paper

    Mill waste

    BOD

    Tungabhadra

    1. Harihar D/S to Hara eahalli Bridge.

    Harihar Sewage & Grasim waste

    BOD- 6-8

    Lake

         
     
  • Heballa Valley Lake, Mandya
  • Mandya Sewage

    BOD- 6-36

     
  • Ulsoor Lake
  • Bangalore sewage

    BOD- 6-18

    M.P

    River

         

    Khan river

  • Indore city to confluence with Kshipra
  • Indore-sewage

    BOD- 65-120

    Kshipra

  • Ujjain to confluence with Chambal
  • Ujjain- sewage

    BOD- 8-24]

    Chambal

  • D/S of Nagda
  • Industrial Waste – Grasim & Nagda Sewage

    BOD- 8-24

    Tapi

  • D/S of Napanagar to Burhanpur city
  • Domestic & Industrial waste water from Nepanagar & Burhanpur

    BOD

    Lake

         
     
  • Lower & upper Lake, Bhopal
  • Bhopal sewage

    BOD- 6-8

     

    Maharashtra

    River

         

    Godavari

  • Nasik to( Raher) Nanded
  • Sewage from Nasik, Chanderpur, Nanded, Raher

    BOD- 6-66

    Kalu

  • Atale village to Confl. with Ulhas
  •  

    BOD- 6-10

    Ulhas

  • Mohane to Baddapur
  • Industrial & Domestic runoff ulhasnagar

    BOD- 6-8

    Weinganga

  • D/S Ashti
  • Ashti town

    BOD- 6-7

    Panchganga

  • Along Ichalkaranji
  • Ichalkaranji

    BOD - 7-25

    Wardha

  • Along Rajura village
  • Paper mill waste

    BOD - 6-8

    Bhima

  • Pargaon to Confluence with river Daund
  • Pune - Sewage

    Nira – discharge

    BOD - 6.5

    Mula & Mutha

  • D/s Pune city
  • City Sewage of Pune

    BOD - 6.7

    Bhatsa

  • D/S of shahpur Industrial township.
  • Industrial township – Shahpur

    BOD

     

    Patalganga

    1. Khopoli to Esturaine region

    Industrial & Municipal sewage from khopoli, Rasayani & Paundh

    BOD – 6

    Kundalika

  • Along Roha city
  • Roha city sewage

    BOD - 6-6.5

    Krishna

  • Dhomdam to Sangli
  • Sewage & Industrial waste from Karnal & Sangli

    BOD - 6-8

    Tapi

  • M.P. Border to Bhusaval
  • Bhusaval Sewage

    BOD - 6-9

    Girna

  • Malegaon to Confl.with Tapi
  • Malegaon Sewage

    BOD - 6-12

    Nira

  • Along Pulgaon
  • Pulgaon Cotton Mill

    BOD – 6-21

    Meghalaya

    River

         

    Kharkhala

  • Near Sutnga Khlieri,Jaintia Hills
  •  

    BOD – 8-10

    Lake

         
     
  • Umiam Lake, Barapani
  • Sewage from Shillong

    BOD 7-13

     
  • Ward Lake, Shillong
  •  

    BOD 9-12.2

     
  • Umtrew lake, Byrnihat East
  •  

    BOD - 7-9

     
  • Thadlaskena lake Shilong
  •  

    BOD 7-9

    Orissa

    River

         

    Brahmani

  • Panposh D/S to Dharamsala
  • Sewage & Industrial waste from Panposh, Rourkela, Talcher, Dharamsala

    BOD 6-7

    Ib

  • Sundargarh to Confl. With Mahanadi
  • Sewage & Industrial waste from Sundargarh, Jharsuguda, Brajrajnagar

    BOD 6-9

    Mahanadi

  • Cuttack D/S
  • Cuttack Sewage

    BOD 6-8

    Kuakhai

  • Along Bubhaneshwar
  • Bubhaneshwar – Sewage

    BOD - 7

    Kathjodi

  • Along Cuttack
  • Cuttack Sewage

    BOD 6-12.3

    Punjab

    River

         

    Satluj

  • D/S of Ludhiana
  • Sewage from Ludhiana and Jalandar

    BOD 8-14.4

    Beas

  • D/S of Mukorian
  • Industrial discharge from Goindwal and Mukarian

    BOD-8.4-20

    Ghaggar

    1. Mubarkpur to Sardulgarh

    Municipal & Industrial discharge from Patiala, Sukhna paper mills & Derra Bassi

    BOD - 6.4-50

     

     

    Rajasthan

    River

         

    Ghaggar

  • Ottu weir to Hanumangarh
  • Industrial & domestic waste from Haryana & Punjab

    BOD

    Chambal

  • D/S Kota city
  • Industrial & Domestic waste from Kota

    BOD 6-6.4

    Banas / Berach river

  • Udaipur to Chittorgarh
  • Municipal waste from Udaipur & Chittorgarh

    BOD

           

    Tamil Nadu

    River

         

    Vaigai

  • Along Madurai
  • Madurai-Industrial & domestic wastewater

    BOD- 7-9

    Palar

  • Vaniyambadi
  • Vaniyambadi - Industrial & Municipal Wastewater

    BOD-

    Adyar

  • Along Chennai
  • Chennai- Industrial & Municipal Wastewater

    BOD

    Coovum

  • Along Chennai
  • Chennai- Industrial & Municipal wastewater

    BOD

    Tambiraparani

  • Papavinasam to Arunuganeri
  • Madura Coats Indusitrial waste

    BOD- 6-13

    Noyyal

  • Along coimbatoor, Tirupur, Palyanakotti
  • Industrial & domestic wastewater from coimbatoor, Tirupur, Palyanakotti

    BOD

    Cauvery

  • D/s of Mettur Dam to Erode city
  • Municipal sewage of Erode

    BOD- 6.4-7

     

    Sikkim

    River

         

    Ranichu

  • Along Ranipur
  • Municipal Wastewater Ranipur

    BOD- 24

     

    Uttar Pradesh

    Yamuna

    1. Kosi Kalan to confl. with Chambal

    Sewage from Agra, Vindravan, Mathura & Etawah

    BOD- 6-37

    Hindon

  • Saharanpur to Confl. With Yamuna
  • Sewage & Industrial

    effluent from Saharanpur, Muzaffur Nagar & Ghaziabad

    BOD- 9-36

    Western Kali

  • Muzaffar Nagar to Confluence with Hindon
  • Sewage & Industrial effluents from Muzaffar nagar & Mansoorpur

    BOD- 21-44

    Buri Yamuna

  • Pilkhani to Confluence with Yamauna
  • Industrial effluent of Pilkhani Distillary

    BOD

    Kali Nadi Eastern

  • Merrut to Kannauj
  • Industrial and Municipal sewage from , Meerut, Modi nagar, Bulandsahar, Hapur, Gulwati and Kannauj

    BOD- 43-135

    Gomti

  • Lucknow to Confluence with Ganga
  • Sewage & Industrial effluent from Lucknow, Sultanpur, Jaunpur.

    BOD 6-8.2

    BOD 6-7.6

    Ganga

  • Kannauj to Kanpur D/S
  • Discharge through Kalinadi & Ramganga sewage & Industrial effluent from Kannauaj and Kanpur

    BOD 6-10

     
  • Varanasi D/s
  • Varanasi sewage & Industrial effluent

    BOD 6.5- 16.5

     

    West Bengal

    River

         

    Damodar

  • Durgapur to Haldia
  • Industrial waste & sewage from Durgapaur & Asansol

    BOD 6.4-32

     

     

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