6.4 ENVIRONMENTAL STATUS

6.4.1 Nicobar Islands

An environmental survey for ascertaining the environmental status of some inhabited islands of District Nicobar was conducted by the Central Pollution Control Board. The salient features of the findings are as follows:

6.4.2 Kolkata

Two rounds of air quality monitoring for the assessment of RSPM, SO2, NOx and lead, were conducted at 15 traffic intersections in Kolkata. The objective of the study was to assess the exposure of people to air pollutants along roadside in the city.

Table 6.9 Day time Air Quality at Traffic Intersections in Kolkata

S.No.
Location
Range of Concentrations in micrograms/m3
CO in ppm
..
SO2
NO2
Lead
.
1.Tollygunge22-7740-1940.4-3.11-3
2.Hazra03-4442-1420.25-1.21-6
3.Khidirpore11-4039-188NT-0.071-5
4.Behala6-3741-186NT.
5.GolparkNT-4031-2800.04-0.081-16
6.GariaNT-2875-1760.52-0.53.
7.Park CircusNT-3035-89NT-0.01.
8.Science CityNT-2816-144NT-0.07.
9.Esplanade11-3330-154NT2-5
10.Shyam Bazar14-3363-1060.04-0.072-6
11.MoulaliNT-7659-2180.02-0.042
12.UltadangaNT-7734-1250.10-0.161-2
13.Chiriamore11-4750-1610.1-3.30.
14.Rabindra Sadan17-48130-195.3-9
15.Howrah Bridge05-28180-199.8-12

Groundwater quality of Kolkata was monitored for assessment of water determinants with respect to major cations and anions including heavy metals. A total of 13 locations were covered in the first round (June, 2000) and 14 locations in the second round (December, 2000).

6.4.3 Kanpur

For information to general public an ambient air quality monitoring station was started at Swaroop Nagar in Kanpur on 1st March 2001. The monitoring data is sent to C.P.C.B. Delhi on the same day. This is planned to telecast on Doordarshan. The monitoring results observed during March 2001 are presented in table below. It may be seen that the ambient air quality is found to exceed the prescribed norms significantly with respect to RSPM, while oxides of Sulphur and Nitrogen are well with in norms.

Table 6.10 Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Data for the month of March 2001

DURATION
SO2
NOX
RSPM
Min.
Max.
Avg.
Min.
Max.
Avg.
Min.
Max.
Avg.
1st week<15.82.45.247.725.5135314226
2nd week<1207.42.311837190312256
3rd week<112.75.06762.623.270282195
4th week<1324.98.57521.7108264170
5th week<19.92.25.59726.995337196
Monthly avg.<15.84.42.311826.970337209
Note- All values is in micro gram per cubic meter.

In order to formulate a strategy for control of air pollution in general and PM10 (respirable particulate matter) in particular, CPCB started monitoring of PM10, SO2 and NOx in Kanpur city since July 2000. The monitoring is undertaken at 4 to 6 different locations of the city. The results obtained indicate SPM and RSPM levels exceeding the prescribed norms, whereas SO2 and NOx remain well within norms. The effective steps are needed to bring down SPM and RSPM drastically in an effective manner for which efforts are underway with the help of World Bank.

6.4.4 Lucknow

The historical city of Lucknow is the capital of Uttar Pradesh. It is also commercial, industrial and official epicentre of Uttar Pradesh. Because of rapid urbanization and industrialization of the city, severe strain is caused on the natural resources and has ultimately affected the basic civic amenities and quality of life of the people. The Central Pollution control Board has conducted an in-depth study to ascertain the causes and consequences of environmental deterioration in the city and also to suggest the remedial measures. The observations are as follows-

Population:

As per 1991 census the population of the city was 16,69,204 and the present estimated population is approximately 25 lakhs. The growth rate of the city was almost uniform till 1981, but showed a sudden increase of 64 % in population in 1991 due to inclusion of adjoining Tahsils into the district. The population growth pattern is shown in Figure 6.7.


Fig 6.7 Population and Land Use Pattern in Lucknow

In the revised Master Plan Lucknow -2001, an area of 23682 hectares is covered and the proposed land use pattern for different purposes is presented in the figure 6.7.

Traffic Transportation and vehicular Pollution:

In order to fulfill the requirement of transportation of Lucknow, 4,49,717 (as on Oct 31, 2000) vehicles are plying in the city among which, the 2 wheelers contribute major share of 81.3 %. Lucknow is well connected with all parts of the State and also most of the parts of the country through express highways. Besides providing facility, these vehicles are daily consuming 195 KLD and 367 KLD of motor spirit and HSD respectively and generating significant pollution to the tune of 187.53 MT/day, among which, carbon monoxide (119 MT/day), hydrocarbons (54.48MT/day) and oxides of nitrogen (10.66 MT/day) are the major pollutants. The quantum of pollutants is presented graphically as presented in figure 6.8.


Fig 6.8 Vehicular Pollution Load in Lucknow

During the previous years, a significant improvement in the traffic flow and air quality is noticed. This is due to banning of tempos in many areas of the city The tempos now plying are either fitted with scrubbers which reduce the emission load by about 75 %. Or battery operated. Construction of flyovers has also eased the pressure of congestion to a large extent.

Water Supply Status:

The present quantity of water being supplied by Lucknow Jal Sansthan is 415 MLD, among which the 245 MLd is from surface sources and remaining 170 MLd is extracted from the ground water sources. Surface water is being taken from river Gomti through Intake work at Gaughat and for the treatment of this water , 2 nos. of filtration plants are constructed at Aishbagh and Hardoi Road . Other details are as follows-

* Present rate of supply of water -166liters/capita/day
* Desired rate of supply-270liters/capita/day
* Deficit in rate of supply-104liters/capita/day
* Total Demand of water-675MLD
* Total deficit in supply-260MLD

Waste Water Management:

The first sewerage network was established in different parts of the city over a century ago. The network has not been augmented from time to time to keep in pace with development of the city. About 70-80% of population in old-Lucknow is covered by sewer lines, but a major portion of it is choked and virtually broken leading over flow of sewage into storm water drains. There are 16 drains from Cis-Gomti and 12 drains from trans-Gomti area meeting river Gomti directly including the sewage pumping stations.Among these , Hyder canal is the only major drain . The quantities of wastewaters generated including through industrial sources are in the range of 461 MLD, entirely going to river Gomti without any treatment.


Fig 6.9 Pollution Load in Gomati River

Gomti River Action Plan :

The DO-BOD profile of river Gomti is presented in the Figures 6.10. It is understood from the chart that in the upstream of the city the quality of river water is better. As a result of discharge of Nagariya drain into the river, the deterioration starts which continues with the addition of discharges of other city drains.

To control the pollution of river Gomti, a meeting was convened on 22.08.2000 at National River Conservation Directorate, New Delhi, wherein thorough discussion were made over the type and management of STPs. It was decided that there would be a separate STP at Daulatganj near Gaughat for the drains located in the u/s area of the city. These drains are namely Nagariya Nala, Gaughat Nala, Sarkata Nala and Pata Nala. The wastewater of these drains will be treated and discharged into Gomti. This will improve considerably the quality of river water in the core area of he city. The draft project report related with this decentralized STP and acquisition of land for its construction have been prepared and sent to Govt. of India. The cost of this project will be Rs. 70.00 crore. The remaining drains will also be tapped and sewage will be collected at Kukrail Main Sewage Pumping Station, from where they will be pumped to another STP of planned to be constructed in the extreme downstream of the city at Kakraha. The sewage/ wastewater after proper treatment will be discharged into Gomti. The project has been inaugurated by the Hon. Chief Min. of U.P., on 10.09.2000. The works related with the diversion works of Pata Nala have been started and at remaining places will be started shortly.

Municipal Solid Waste Management:

The municipal area of the city is 310.0 sq. km. and accommodates 2.0 households. The population being served by MC is approximately 25 lakhs. The present quantity of the MSW generated is approx. 1500 MT per day. The daily collection of Solid waste is in the range of approximately 2200 MT which includes demolition wastes also, with the help of 4000 odd nos. of sweepers. As per norms i.e. UP Health Manual, the required staff for above work should be 28 per 10,000 populations. The present staff should be around 7,000, which shows that the MC is lacking in respect of staff strength. Out of 110 wards, 28 wards are unstaffed regarding sanitation for which MC has engaged per ward 10 persons on contract basis, which is still not enough to meet the requirement . Two nos. of identified land fill sites namely Purnia and Moti Jheel are being used for dumping of MSW in an unscientific manner. A sum of Rs. 3000 Lakhs was spent during the year 2000-2001, on the overall management of municipal solid wastes for the city of Lucknow.

6.4.5 Status of air pollution in Satna & Katni region

The entire lime belt region i.e. Katni & Satna districts in Madhya Pradesh were surveyed and all lime kilns in the region were inventorised. During inventorisation, door-to-door survey was done in the peak season i.e. October-November, 2000 when most of the units were in operation. All the related details on limekiln like kiln dimensions, lining material, raw material consumption and production, availability of electricity and generation of SO2, SPM, were collected during the inventorisation. The collected information is summarized in Table 6.11.

Table - 6.11 Inventory of lime kilns in Satna and Katni region

S. No.
Information
Katni
Satna
1.
Total number of active unit9222
2.
Production (tpd)1850470
3.
Type of kilnSemi-continuous Vertical shaft Manual and mechanical feedSemi-continuous vertical shaft, manual feed
4.
Coal consumption (tpd)950230
5.
Limestone consumption (tpd)39001000
6.
Sulphur-di-oxide generation (MT/day)9.52.3
7.
Particulate matter (MT/day)7.41.88
8.
Solid waste generation (tpd)29275
9.
Length to diameter ratio of kiln2.5-32.5-3
10.
DraftNatural Natural
11.
Pollution control devices installedNil01


Observations

Status of stone crushers in the region

Stone crushers located around Satna city were also inventorised. Sixteen (16) stone crushers were found in operation. The electricity supply to stone crushers was quite irregular.

The production capacity of these stone crusher varied from 5 to 160 TPD and most of the crushers were producing 40, 20, 10 & 6 mm size of stone. Nine stone crusher were running in industrial area in Satna city. Most of the stone crusher were not having valid consent from MPPCB and were running without any Air Pollution Control Measure (APCM).

Considering the potential of air pollution in Katni district, a detailed ambient air quality monitoring was conducted during the lean period. Normally, the consumption/demand of the lime reduces during December-February and April-August which has been considered as lean period for lime production. Rest of the period is peak period for limekiln operators in this region.

To collect the background ambient air quality of the region, February month was chosen. On the basis of available information about the distribution of limekiln in Katni district, total nine sampling locations were identified for collection of representative ambient air quality sample from the region. While selecting these locations, meteorology, topography and available facilities for monitoring were also kept in view. Parameters like RPM, SPM, SO2 & NO2 were analysed and the results have been presented in Table 6.12.

Table 6.12 Ambient Air Quality in Katni region during February 06-12, 2001

S. No.
Sampling Station
RPM(mg/m3)
SPM(mg/m3)
SO2(mg/m3)
NO2(mg/m3)
.
.
1st day
2nd day
1st day
2nd day
1st day
2nd day
1st day
2nd day
01.
Jhukehi Village
177
68
501
197
6
5
29
17
02.
Jobikalan Village
92
131
272
299
19
11
36
26
03.
Tikerwara
467
139
1158
285
24
21
29
33
04.
Near Jhukehi Railway Station
342
138
515
291
24
17
82
40
05.
Kachagaon
152
168
338
337
17
15
20
24
06.
Near Rajarwara
82
133
424
277
11
10
14
11
07.
Kharkhari
105
191
193
244
12
13
19
19
08.
Mehgaon
110
117
258
378
22
12
36
86
09.
Badari
95
106
228
269
14
6
21
19

      a. data based on the 24 hour observation (average), monitored for 48 hours duration
      b. prescribed limit (rural areas) RPM - 100 mg/m3, SPM - 200 mg/m3, SO2 - 80 mg/m3, NO2 - 80 mg/m3


Analysing the data, it may be seen that :